1.The Pulmonary Fibrosis
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What Is Pulmonary Fibrosis? In Details.
Respiratory efficiency declines with age. Tidal volume (the measurement of air moved in and out during normal respiration) remains the same. However, the older adult has a decreased vital capacity, This means the older adult is unable to compensate for increased oxygen need by significantly increasing the amount of air inspired. Dyspnea(difficult breathing) often occurs with physically demanding activities, such as running for a bus or carrying heavy parcels upstairs.
A greater volume of residual air is left in the lungs after expiration, and the capacity to cough efficiently decreases because of weaker expiratory muscles. Mucous secretion
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The Cardiovascular Pulmonary Fibrosis
The working capacity of the heart diminishes with age. This is particularly evident when increased demands are made on the heart,such as during periods of exercise or emotional stress. The heart rate at normal rest may decrease with age. However, the heart rate of the older person is slower to respond to stress and slower to return to normal after periods of physical activity.
Changes in the arteries occur concurrently. Reduced arterial elasticity may result in diminished blood supply to, for instance, the
legs and the brain, resulting in pain on exertion in the calf muscles and dizziness, respectively. In addition, there may be a delay in the circulatory adjustments required when a person quickly stands up from a lying or sitting position. The delay results in an abrupt drop in systolic blood pressure known as orthostatic hypotension.
For blood pressure measurements, it is not unusual to have a slight increase in the systolic pressure while the diastolic pressure remains the same. For many years, isolated systolic hypertension was considered to be “normal” in older adults, and was frequently not treated. Newer evidence indicates that a systolic pressure at or greater than 140 mmH is as problematic in older adults as in younger ones, and should be as aggressively treated with antihypertensive agents, diet, and exercise. Pulmonary fibrosis Obese older adults with hypertension will have pathophysiological changes affecting the heart, blood vessels, and kidneys of pulmonary fibrosis.Damage to the renal system with comorbid cardiovascular disease increases the client’s risk of death (Aronow et al., 2011; Porth,
2011). The older adult population must be educated on lifestyle modifications such as a reduced-fat diet, smoking cessation, stress
reduction, limited salt intake, and exercise. The reduction in blood pressure will preserve kidney function and reduce heart disease and
stroke risk. Health promotion activities are aimed at detecting and reducing risks for cardiovascular disease. To detect risks, blood pressure and
cholesterol levels should be checked annually and more frequently with abnormal results. To reduce risks of cardiovascular disease, the nurse should inform the older adult about the importance of the following: smoking cessation , ‘maintaining ideal body etc
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Urinary Pulmonary Fibrosis
The excretory function of the kidney diminishes with age, but usually not significantly below normal levels unless a disease process inter-
venes. The kidney’s filtering abilities may also be impaired; thus waste products may be filtered and excreted more slowly. For this reason, the nurse should be aware of whether medications that are administered are excreted via the kidney or liver. Drugs that are metabolized predominantly in the kidney may accumulate in the older adult, and the nurse should watch for signs of toxicity. More noticeable changes are those related to the bladder. Complaints of urinary urgency and urinary frequency are common. The capacity of the bladder and its ability to completely empty diminish with age. Many older adults need to void during the night (nocturia) and may experience retention of residual urine, predisposing them to bladder infections. Although older adults are susceptible to urinary incontinence(UI) because of changes in the kidney and bladder, UI is never nor-
mal. The nurse must promptly investigate UI, particularly when of new onset. Urinary incontinence has many ill effects on older adults,
including social isolation, falls, and skin breakdown. The nurse can teach the following health promotion activities for good urinary function:
- Drink sufficient fluids daily
- Drink fluids even if not thirsty
- Avoid foods that can irritate the bladder
- Pratice Pelvic muscle exercise to stop or control stress incontinence
Genital Pulmonary Fibrosis
Degenerative changes in the gonads are gradual in men Producting, Driestosterone continues, and the testes can produce sperm will The old age although there is a gradual decrease in the number of sperm well into produced in women the dégenerative changes in the ovaries are ith)
Prodiby the cessation of menses in middle age during the menopause Changes in the gonads of older women result trom diminished secretion of the ovarian hormones. Some changes, such as the shrinking of the uterus and ovaries, go unnoticed. Other changes are obvious,The breasts atrophy, and lubricating vaginal secretions are reduced.Rectuced natural lubrication may be the cause of painful intercourse, which may be addressed through the use of water-soluble lubricants.
The older man will notice several age-related changes in his sexual response and performance, but it is important for both the client
and nurse to know that sexual response and performance should be present in the older adult. There is a decline in sexual hormones with
a more gradual decline in the male than the female (Tabloski, 2014)For both men and women, the major age-related change in sexual re-
sponse is timing. It takes longer to become sexually aroused, longer to complete intercourse, and longer before sexual arousal can occur
again. In general, the older mans libido may decrease, but not disappear. If an older man reports a loss in sexual interest, the nurse should
be as concerned as when a younger man reports a loss of interest in sexual activity. Older men achieve an erection that is less firm than in
younger men, but still capable of penetration. Ejaculation may take longer to occur, and the older man may have difficulty anticipatin
or delaying ejaculation, During orgasm the urethral contractions are decreased and there is a decrease in seminal fluid and lessended force of ejaculation.
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